Melanoma

The deepest layer of the epidermis, located just above the dermis, contains cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes produce the skin’s pigment or color. Melanoma begins when healthy melanocytes change and grow out of control, forming a cancerous tumor. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. Sometimes, melanoma develops from a normal mole a person already has on their skin. When this happens, the mole will undergo changes that usually can be seen, such as changes in shape, size, color, or the border of the mole (see also Symptoms and Signs).

Melanoma can develop anywhere on the body, including the head and neck, the skin under the fingernails, the genitals, and even the soles of the feet or palms of the hands. Melanoma may not be colored like a mole. It may have no color or be slightly red, which is called amelanotic melanoma.

When found early, melanoma can often be cured with surgery. However, melanoma is 1 of the most serious forms of skin cancer. It can grow deep into the skin, called invasive melanoma. It can also invade lymph nodes and blood vessels and spread to distant parts of the body, called metastatic melanoma.

This section focuses on cutaneous melanoma, which is melanoma that first develops in the skin. Melanoma can also develop in the mucous membranes that line the mouth, the gastrointestinal tract, a woman’s vagina, and other locations around the body. Melanoma may also develop in the eye. Learn more about melanoma diagnosed in other parts of the body in these separate sections:

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